Sunday, July 12, 2020
Sources For Peter Pan Essay TopicsStudents who are interested in writing a thesis on Peter Pan should start by familiarizing themselves with the source material. Before they begin writing essays on Peter Pan, they should read or skim through the source material.This will give them a good idea of the type of essay topics that they will be faced with. Students should make sure to research as much about the source material as possible before they begin. This is important because they will be asked to do extra research for their assignment.Essay topics for Peter Pan can include the story's origins and development, the story's characters, and the experience of being a child. These are all topics that should be researched before students write an essay. When there is enough research done, students will be able to effectively present their ideas in the form of a paper.The children of Peter Pan are unique in their ability to express themselves in different themes. When students research the backgrounds of these children, they will be able to see how the author is able to get the characters right. They will also have an idea of what should be written about in the paper.In addition to researching the sources, students should also make sure to participate in class discussions. Since they will be writing their own essays, it is essential that they feel as though they are truly a part of the class.The essay topics can include personal experiences, personal observations, and personal opinions. Students should think about how they will feel about the characters of the story when they are actually writing the paper. This will help them understand why they should choose the topics that they should choose.Reading about the history of Peter Pan is important. Knowing whathas already been written will give students a more concrete idea of what they can write about in their essay.Students can research the different Peter Pan essay topics to make sure that they are writing about the topic they are interested in. When students are interested in writing about Peter Pan, they should look at how they can research this topic properly. They can do this by reading sources and participating in class discussions.
Wednesday, May 20, 2020
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, also called AME Church, was established by the Reverend Richard Allen in 1816. Allen founded the denomination in Philadelphia to unite African-American Methodist churches in the North. These congregations wanted to be free from white Methodists who historically had not allowed African-Americans to worship in desegregated pews. Ã As founder of the AME Church, Allen was consecratedÃ as its first bishop. The AME Church is a unique denomination in the Wesleyan tradition--it is the only religion in the western hemisphere to develop from the sociological needs of its members. It is also the first African-American denomination in the United States. God our Father, Christ our Redeemer, Man our Brother Ã¢â¬âDavid Alexander Payne Organizational Mission Since its establishment in 1816, the AME Church has worked to minister to the needs--spiritual, physical, emotional, intellectual and environmental--of people. Using liberation theology, the AME seeks to help those in need by preaching the gospel of Christ, providing food for the hungry, providing homes, encouraging those who have fallen on hard times as well as economic advancement, and providing employment opportunities to those in need. The History of the AME Church In 1787, the AME Church was established out of the Free African Society, an organization developed by Allen and Absalom Jones, who led African-American parishioners of St. Georges Methodist Episcopal Church to leave the congregation because of the racism and discrimination they faced. Together, this group of African-Americans would transform a mutual aid society into a congregation for people of African descent. In 1792, Jones founded the African Church in Philadelphia, an African-American church free from white control. Desiring to become an Episcopal parish, the church opened in 1794 as the African Episcopal Church and became the first black church in Philadelphia. However, Allen wanted to remain Methodist and led a small group to form the Mother Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church in 1793. For the next several years, Allen fought for his congregation to worship free from white Methodist congregations. After winning these cases, other African-American Methodist churchesÃ that were also encountering racism wanted independence. These congregations to Allen for leadership. As a result, these communities came together in 1816 to form a new Wesleyan denomination known as the AME Church. Before the abolition of slavery, most AME congregations could be found in Philadelphia, New York City, Boston, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, Cincinnati, Cleveland, and Washington D.C. By the 1850s, the AME Church had reached San Francisco, Stockton, and Sacramento. Once slavery ended, the AME Churchs membership in the South increased tremendously, reaching 400,000 members by 1880 in states such as South Carolina, Kentucky, Georgia, Florida, Alabama and Texas. And by 1896, the AME Church could boast membership on two continents--North America and Africa--as there were churches established in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and South Africa. AME Church Philosophy The AME Church follows the doctrines of the Methodist Church. However, the denomination follows the Episcopal form of church government, having bishops as religious leaders. Also, since the denomination was founded and organized by African-Americans, its theology is based on the needs of people of African descent. Early Notable Bishops Since its inception, the AME Church has cultivated African-American men and women who could synthesize their religious teachings with a fight for social injustice. For example,Ã Benjamin Arnett addressed the 1893 Worlds Parliament of Religions, arguing that people of African descent have helped develop Christianity.Ã Additionally,Ã Benjamin Tucker Tanner wrote, An Apology for African Methodism in 1867 and The Color of Solomon in 1895. AME Colleges and Universities Education has always played an important role in the AME Church. Even before slavery was abolished in 1865, the AME Church began establishing schools to train young African-American men and women. Many of these schools are still active today and include senior colleges Allen University, Wilberforce University, Paul Quinn College, and Edward Waters College; junior college, Shorter College; theological seminaries, Jackson Theological Seminary, Payne Theological Seminary and Turner Theological Seminary. The AME Church Today The AME Church now has membership in thirty-nine countries on five continents. There are currently twenty-one bishops in active leadership and nine general officers who oversee various departments of the AME Church.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Essays on Challenges Faced by Amazon, SWOT Analysis, Porters Five Forces, and BCG Matrix Case Study The paper Ã¢â¬Å"Challenges Faced by Amazon, SWOT Analysis, PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces, and BCG MatrixÃ¢â¬ is a Ã Ã breathtaking example of a case study on e-commerce. Amazom.com is a perfect example of the impact of the internet revolution and how such developments have changed the business scene. As a virtual company, it marks the influence of the internet on conventional business strategies mode and theories (Reading 2004). This report will analyze the Amazon business model and macro factors affecting the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s future. The report addresses Amazon through its two recognized SBUÃ¢â¬â¢s North America (domestic) and international markets. The SWOT analysis will evaluate Amazon's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. The porterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces analysis will give insight into the online retailing industry and Amazon's competitive advantage over its rivals. This report will look at AmazonÃ¢â¬â¢s product portfolio and its market share in each categ ory. The report has given a recommendation to improve AmazonÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in the future.Industry overviewInternet access has been growing steadily over the past 15 years and continues to grow in the future as well (Heinemann Schwarzl 2010). This is a booming industry. There are few barriers to entry therefore fiercely competitive industry. The industry provides an alternative to the physical retailing industry which gives customers more choice because they can look for more suppliers supplying the same service. The online companies do not have to pay huge rent for the prime location but they have another technology cost.Amazon overviewAmazon.com is an American based online retail company. Founded by Jeff Bezos in 1994, the company was established as an online bookstore in July 1995 in Washington (Mennen 2006; Annual report 2009). The company was reincorporated again in 1996 in the state of Delaware. The company got listed on May 15, 1997, on NASDAQ stock exchange under the symbol Ã¢â¬ËAMZNÃ¢â¬â¢ (Amazon Annual Report 2009). Amazon.com is the market leader in the e-commerce business. In a span of five years after the listing, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue had grown from Ã¢â¬Å"$147.8 million to over $ 3.93 billion with sales registering a 26% growth in the fiscal year 2001Ã¢â¬ (Mennen 5; Cummings Worley, 332). However, investors did not gain a lot as the firm plowed back the profits in developing a number of warehouses and distribution centers across the country (McGrath MacMillan 2009). Today the company has become a multinational company successfully operating in many countries such as Japan, UK, and Germany (Annual report 2009). The company measures its success on the basis of the value it creates for its shareholders. The company believes in investing in its employees and benefiting from its talent. The company rewards its employees through shares rather than cash to motivate them to work in the best interest of shareholders. Amazon offers the world the largest selection of products making it the leading online shopping site throughout the world (Regan 2008). Amazon is one of the top brands in the online retailing industry.The company had an early mover advantage in the industry as one of the pioneer online retailers (Mennen 2006). Originally, the firm was a simple online low price bookstore before expanding to include CDs and DVDs in 1998. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business model is to generate a large number of sales with a low margin profit which necessitated a change in strategy (Annual report 2009). In 1999, the firm engaged in networking as a growth strategy. Non-Amazon products such as used books and individual auctions of different products were placed under tabs on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s website and were not allowed to mix with the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s products. Such tabs were the Ã¢â¬ËauctionsÃ¢â¬â¢ tab and the Ã¢â¬ËshopÃ¢â¬â¢ tab (Cummings Worley 2009). This strategy was later reviewed to allow small businesses placed under tabs to place their products in AmazonÃ¢â¬â¢s most visited sites at a fee. Another program, email@example.com, allowed larger partner retailers such as Office Depot, Circuit City and Borders Books to access AmazonÃ¢â¬â¢s customers for a service fee and commission while Amazon retained inventory ownership and controlled prices. Another business arrangement with firms such as Drugstore allowed Amazon users to be transferred to other websites with Amazon receiving a commission based on the number of visitors transferred (Cummings Worley 2009). In the recent past, the firm has entered the manufacturing industry through its Kindle brand an electronic reading device (Kaye Quinn 2010).
Congressional reconstruction- civil war Essay The governments established under Congressional Reconstruction made notable and lasting achievements. One positive outcome that resulted was the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which extended citizenship to African Americans and listed certain rights of all citizens such as the right to own property, bring lawsuits, and testify in court. Another major outcome was the Fifteenth Amendment, which prohibited the states from denying the right to vote because of a persons race or because a person had been a slave. This finally granted African Americans the right to vote and marked an important change in the history of our country. A negative outcome resulted politically from congressional Reconstruction. Many of the federal laws concerning reconstruction led to the strengthening of the federal government at the expense of the states. These new laws often placed significant restrictions on state actions on the ground that the rights of national citizenship took precedence over the powers of state governments leading to an increase in sectional bitterness, an intensification of the racial issue, and the development of one-party politics in the South. Stemming from this infringement of states rights and intensified by the election of 1868 was another negative outcome. Fierce activities were stirred up by groups such as the KKK- violence became prominent, and terrorists and mobs attacked many people- mostly Republicans and blacks. The end of slavery brought new expectations for all African Americans, whether they had been slaves or not. Taking advantage of the new choices that freedom opened, they tried to create independent lives for themselves, and they developed social institutions that helped to define black communities. African Americans also expected political and economic equality. Few were able to acquire land of their own- a significant constraint on their economic choices- and most became either wage laborers or sharecroppers. Having no land, no tools, and no money, the freed slaves had only their personal labor to sell. Most white southerners expected to keep African Americans in a subordinate role through black codes and violence, and these things also posed a major constraint for the free slaves. Though freedom did not come to all slaves at the same time or in the same way, in the end, the outcome of Reconstruction failed to fulfill most African Americans expectations for freedom and equality. .
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Langston Hughes Research Paper Paper When one looks at the life of Langston Hughes, it becomes apparent that his life experiences had a profound impact on his writings. Langston Hughes used his writing as a way to fight the injustice that blacks in America faced daily; he viewed his book as his weapon for African American equality (Ostrom 81). Others, who read HughesÃ¢â¬â¢ work during his lifetime, were very much influenced, despite their race. Non-blacks learned to accept and learn that African American artists were an essential part of American art and culture and would continue to be as time advanced. With his career in writing, Hughes was not interested in the fame it brought; he just wanted others to understand the message he was trying to send, Ã¢â¬Å"Perhaps the mission of an artist is to interpret the beauty to the people-the beauty within themselvesÃ¢â¬ (Dace 70). Langston Hughes did not often focus on the brutality of American racism as a theme for his poems. A rare instance of the brutality used as a theme for a poem of his is shown in HughesÃ¢â¬â¢ poem entitled, Ã¢â¬Å"Song for a Dark Girl.Ã¢â¬ Hughes writes: Ã¢â¬Å"Way Down South in Dixie (Break the heart if me) They hung my dark young lover To a cross roads tree. Way Down South in Dixie (Bruised body high in the air) I asked the white Lord Jesus What was the use of prayer. Way Down South in Dixie (Break the heart of me) Love is a naked shadow On a gnarled and naked tree.Ã¢â¬ (Barksdale 77) The poem is written entirely in the tone of bitter irony. The poemÃ¢â¬â¢s focus is on violence towards a young black woman, and also on the grief she experiences (Dace 73). We will write a custom essay sample on Langston Hughes Research Paper specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Langston Hughes Research Paper specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Langston Hughes Research Paper specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Another social issue which became an essential theme in the writing of Langston Hughes was economic justice. Hughes became interested in the subject during the Great Depression of America during the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s. Hughes often traveled extensively due to his participation in complicated, annual lecture tours, because of this he often gained knowledge and related and compared black lifestyles and treatment in America to that of other societyÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment of blacks. After visiting Russia for three weeks, having the mindset that socialism would end the issue of economic injustice, Hughes changed his mind. He saw that people were not equal and the government did not do their part to help improve that (). While visiting France and seeing that the French society as a whole treated him very well and as their equal, Hughes imagined having this sort of freedom and luxury at home in America. Although Hughes did not often focus on the theme of racism in his poetry, he did usually focus on the comparison of whites and blacks. Hughes constantly remained well informed about everything to come and everything taking place in the black society of America (Dace 77). Hughes had many influences to his poetry writing, including Walt Whitman and Carl Sandburg, these two men wrote about the humanity of all people regardless of factors such as class, race, gender, and age, this was very important to Hughes. HughesÃ¢â¬â¢ very first collection of poetry, entitled The Ways of White Folks, shows his effort to present a clear and distinct gap between white and African American ways and views of life. It also focuses on the obvious hypocrisy of whites in matters dealing with race. In all of HughesÃ¢â¬â¢ writing dealing with the matter of differences between races, Hughes uses a distinctly ironic and unsentimental tone. Steven C, Tracy, writes on Langston Hughes, Ã¢â¬Å"The acceptance that Hughes sought was not only for himself but the black oral traditionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Barksdale 116). As an African American himself, Hughes wanted to express not only his personal experiences as a black American but also that of the experiences of the community of blacks in general. Hughes, however, was not entirely considered a part of the people for whom he wrote about and loved so much. Due to HughesÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"mixed bloodÃ¢â¬ and the fact that he was a lighter skinned African American, with an arrogant family who chose to move in white crowds, attend white schools, and with a father who looked down upon the lower black class, Hughes was viewed by American blacks as an outsider (Dace 86). Despite all of that, Hughes was proud to be an African America, he loved Africa, his land of ancestry and was extremely devastated to find that, in Africa, he was considered to be a white man. HughesÃ¢â¬â¢ first commitment in his writing was to that of the African American community and that his writing reaches out to all readers. He wanted to capture the dominant traditions of black people in written form. HughesÃ¢â¬â¢ purpose may have been achieved, as today his book of poetry, The Crisis (1921), can be considered the most important journal of black life (Dace 90). In his writing, Hughes celebrates the beauty of African American speech, and the black communityÃ¢â¬â¢s jokes, stories, music, and church sermons. One community Hughes never tired of writing about was that of the black community on Seventh Street in Washington D.C., he loved the sights, sounds, and spirits of the people here and he tried to capture all of it in his poetry. With his writing, Hughes helped lift the spirits of blacks and make them proud of their cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s history and heritage (Dace 101). To be black and American were two highly separate identities in the eyes of Langston Hughes; they were two despairs within the same soul. In HughesÃ¢â¬â¢ early poems on segregation, such as Ã¢â¬Å"I, Too, Sing AmericaÃ¢â¬ Hughes focuses in on the difficulties of being black, but shows that he is also proud: Ã¢â¬Å"I, too, sing America. I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes, But I laugh And eat well, And grow strong. Tomorrow, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll be at the table When company comes. NobodyÃ¢â¬â¢ll dare Say to me, Ã¢â¬ËEat in the kitchen,Ã¢â¬â¢ Then. Besides, TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ll see how beautiful I am And be ashamedÃ¢â¬â I, too, am America.Ã¢â¬ (Dace 103) Hughes was very passionate about the mistreatment of blacks in the south, the fact that blacks had to move off of the sidewalks for whites to pass, and there was no eye contact allowed to those of black to whites, greatly angered and disturbed him, driving him to write more poems about the mistreatment of him and his people. His later poems dealing with equality, although still somewhat pessimistic, suggested that idea that at some point in the future, the lifestyle of African Americans would be bright (Dace 125).Langston Hughes is greatly known for his writing on the Harlem Renaissance, an era of celebration for African Americans and their arts. Hughes viewed Harlem as more than a place; he was interested in its people and everything about them, from their manners to their dreams. He used the people and things in Harlem in much of his writing, from murder in the streets of Harlem to the gospels sung in church on Sunday mornings. The Harlem Renaissance allowed Hughes the freedom to focus on exclusively blacks and their lifestyle and to leave the issue of the conflict of races alone (Barksdale 123). Langston Hughes is a great figure in the history of African Americans, and in the history of our country as a whole. His ideas and unique methods of writing have developed into great techniques for many other artists and are still used today. Hughes was never afraid to write on topics close to him and did this with great pride and ability. He dealt with his emotions, the issues of his raceÃ¢â¬â¢s past, and critical social issues taking place during his lifetime. He has earned a lot of respect not only for himself through his writing, but also for his culture of people as a whole.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Intervention, Training and Rehabilitation Programs at UCI Introduction Gang brutality is a problem in every town in the world. According to the department of justice, there are more than 700000 gang members in the United States alone. In addition, there are more than 20000 gangs in the United States. This paper will explore gang violence, intervention, training and rehabilitation programs at UCI.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Intervention, Training and Rehabilitation Programs at UCI specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Do street gang injunctions really work in the OC? Gang activities affect quality of life in communities it is practiced. Murder, rape, violence and drug abuse are some of the activities that lower quality of life in communities with pronounced gang activities. The United States has eight states, which have authority to get gang injunctions. California is one of the states that have utilized that authority in the past. Interestingly, California has experienced s uccess in implementing gang injunctions. On the other hand, Orange County has experienced mixed results over time. The county has eight cities in which gang injunctions are permanent. Results from the eight cities have shown significant reduction in crimes. The cities in which gang injunctions are permanent include Orange, Stanton and Anaheim, among others. Furthermore, evidences show that gang injunctions work in the Orange County. Nonetheless, the injunctions can only succeed when the community is engaged in implementing them. What are the impacts of mass imprisonment on families and children? The rate of mass incarceration has risen in the United States. In fact, according to the Institute for Policy Research (IPR), population of prisoners has skyrocketed. The organization estimates that over 600000 prisoners are released annually. Integrating incarcerated prisoners into the community is usually difficult. Incarcerations affect two main relationships in the family. The affected r elationships include father-child relationship and romantic relationship. Research has shown that incarcerated fathers tend to have damaged relations with their offspring. Moreover, incarceration has the propensity of severing romantic relationships. However, it should be noted that these effects are unevenly spread among residents. For instance, whites find it easier to integrate in the family more than their black counterparts do. Furthermore, families from poor background find it difficult to survive with increased expenses. Additionally, an incarcerated individual may develop a new attitude or behavior that affects the family.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Is imprisonment of a father always awful for families? Imprisonment of paternal parent has been found to be dreadful for families. Firstly, studies have shown that most children whose fathers are imprisoned exh ibit violent behaviors. In addition, most of incarcerated fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s children have attention problems, which can lead to further psychological problems. Incarceration of fathers, therefore, puts families through hardships, which can be economical, emotional, or physical. Studies also suggest that children whose paternal parents are nonresident also face problems due to incarceration. In essence, paternal incarceration has a great effect on children as well as mothers and other stakeholders tasked with helping the family. What are some of the best practices? Some of the best practices include providing specialized support to children affected by incarceration of their parents. This can be done by teachers, family members, caretakers, social providers and relatives, among others. Incarceration puts children at higher risk than other members of the family. Therefore, children affected by incarceration are usually given more attention by teachers and caretakers to help shape their future. Conclusion Crime is a problem in every country in the world. Gangs spring up with various criminal activities. Gang injunctions in Orange County have eased the rate of crime in the zoned areas. However, more needs to be done by engaging community to help with reducing gang activities.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Ceramic Definition and Chemistry The word ceramic comes from the Greek word keramikos, which means of pottery. While the earliest ceramics were pottery, the term encompasses a large group of materials, including some pure elements. A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid, generally based on an oxide, nitride, boride, or carbide, that is fired at a high temperature. Ceramics may be glazed prior to firing to produce a coating that reduces porosity and has a smooth, often colored surface. Many ceramics contain a mixture of ionic and covalent bonds between atoms. The resulting material may be crystalline, semi-crystalline, or vitreous. Amorphous materials with similar composition are generally termed glass. The four main types of ceramics are whitewares, structural ceramics, technical ceramics, and refractories. Whitewares include cookware, pottery, and wall tiles. Structural ceramics include bricks, pipes, roofing tiles, and floor tiles. Technical ceramics are also know as special, fine, advanced, or engineered ceramics. This class includes bearings, special tiles (e.g. spacecraft heat shielding), biomedical implants, ceramic brakes, nuclear fuels, ceramic engines,Ã and ceramic coatings. Refractories are ceramics used to make crucibles, line kilns, and radiate heat in gas fireplaces. How Ceramics Are Made Raw materials for ceramics include clay, kaolinate, aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, tungsten carbide, and certain pure elements. The raw materials are combined with water to form a mix that can be shaped or molded. Ceramics are difficult to work after they are made, so usually they are shaped into their final desired forms. The form is allowed to dry and is fired in an oven called a kiln. The firing process supplies the energy to form new chemical bonds in the material (vitrification) and sometimes new minerals (e.g., mullite forms from kaolin in the firing of porcelain). Waterproof, decorative, or functional glazes may be added prior to the first firing or may require a subsequent firing (more common). The first firing of a ceramic yields a product called the bisque. The first firing burns off organics and other volatile impurities. The second (or third) firing may be called glazing. Examples and UsesÃ of Ceramics Pottery, bricks, tiles, earthenware, china, and porcelain are common examples of ceramics. These materials are well-known for use in building, crafting, and art. There are many other ceramic materials: In the past, glass was considered a ceramic, because its an inorganic solid that is fired and treated much like a ceramic. However, because glass is an amorphous solid, glass is usually considered to be a separate material. The ordered internal structure of ceramics plays a large role in their properties.Solid pure silicon and carbon may be considered to be ceramics. In a strict sense, a diamond could be called a ceramic.Silicon carbide and tungsten carbide are technical ceramics that have high abrasion resistance, making them useful for body armor, wear plates for mining, and machine components.Uranium oxide (UO2 is a ceramic used as a nuclear reactor fuel.Zirconia (zirconium dioxide) is used to make ceramic knife blades, gems, fuel cells, and oxygen sensors.Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a semiconductor.Boron oxide is used to make body armor.Bismuth strontium copper oxide and magnesium diboride (MgB2) are superconductors.Steatite (magnesium silicate) is used as an electrical insulator.Barium titanate is used to make heating elements, capacitors, transducers, and data storage elements. Ceramic artifacts are useful in archaeology and paleontology because their chemical composition can be used to identify their origin. This includes not only the composition of clay, but also that of the temper the materials added during production and drying. Properties of Ceramics Ceramics include such a wide variety of materials that its difficult to generalize their characteristics. Most ceramics exhibit the following properties: High hardnessUsually brittle, with poor toughnessHigh melting pointChemical resistancePoor electrical and thermal conductivityLow ductilityHigh modulus of elasticityHigh compression strengthOptical transparency to a variety of wavelengths Exceptions include superconducting and piezoelectric ceramics. Related Terms The science of the preparation and characterization of ceramics is called ceramography. Composite materials are made up of more than one class of material, which may include ceramics. Examples of composites include carbon fiber and fiberglass. A cermet is a type of composite material containing ceramic and metal. A glasss of glass-ceramics include glass stove tops and the glass composite used to bind nuclear waste for disposal.